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Interested in learning blockchain?

If you sign up, we directly send you our "top list of readings" we urgently recommend. This can help you identify the most interesting aspects within the increasingly complex field of enterprise DLT, crypto assets, and Bitcoin - both for beginners and more advanced persons.

Interested in a job in the blockchain ecosystem?

If you sign up, we will regularly provide you with job opportunities from our network. When filling out the form, you can choose your area of interest and at which level you would like to join.

What is the Frankfurt School Blockchain Center?

The FSBC is a think tank and research center focused primarily on investigating the implications of blockchain technology. In addition to general research and prototype development, the FSBC serves as a networking hub for managers, start-ups, and experts to exchange knowledge and best practices. The FSBC also organizes educational opportunities for both students and executives, including on-campus courses, workshops, and conferences. 

What is the focus?

Currently, the FSBC is focusing on crypto assets, digital securities, the digital euro, CBDCs, tokenization of assets, decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs). 

What projects?

Specifically, we operate the Crypto Assets Conference (CAC), the DLT Talents program to empower women in the blockchain space, and the DeFi Talents program for education in the DeFi sector. as well as the NFT Talents for leadership in the NFT space. Further, we have co-founded the Digital Euro Association (DEA), the International Token Standardization Association (ITSA), as a consulting company for the digital assets space, and the DEC Institute as an organization certifying executives' blockchain knowledge. As of autumn 2022, we also launch the new study program Master of Blockchain & Digital Assets (MBDA).


Upcoming event: The Merge: The Aftermath of the Ethereum Update

September 28, 2022 | 14:00-15:00 (CEST)

Ethereum's transition from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake has been in the works for years. In November 2020, Ethereum launched a parallel blockchain called Beacon-Chain to test all possible scenarios. Now, the merge is happening mid of September 2022. The result of years of work is thus about to bear fruit and will forever change the second largest crypto asset by market capitalization. With such a complex blockchain upgrade also comes some risks and skepticism. Even so, the majority of the crypto world is optimistic about the success of the upgrade at the moment.

In this panel, we are going to discuss the impact of the Proof of stake transition and its effects on the ecosystem of the Ethereum network, the emerging layer two solutions as well as possible risks. By the date of this panel discussion, “The Merge” should have already happened such that we already should see the first significant implications - which we will discuss.

Past event: How to Kick-start your Career in Decentralized Finance

Watch recording

Past event: State of Crypto Markets: Institutional Adoption?

Watch recording

Past event: "Assets-as-a-Service: Using the Digital Euro for Industrial Use Cases"

Watch recording

Past event: "Exciting Times for the Metaverse and the Role of NFTs!"

Watch recording

Academy and education

Become a blockchain expert

Blockchain will change the world and Germany is on its way to lead the digital change in this area. Education is always the first step towards the successful implementation of innovation. This is why the Frankfurt School Blockchain Center is offering a wide range of education to enable everyone from intern to CEO to understand and successfully apply blockchain.

Post-Experience Master in Blockchain & Digital Assets
  • 4 semesters that entail 7 block weeks and writing your master thesis
  • Technical and economical deep dive into blockchain, Bitcoin, smart contract platforms, digital assets, DeFi, tokenization, NFTs, CBDCs, legal frameworks and many other relevant topics
  • The course is designed for industry professionals that have at least one year of relevant work experience and who do not want to fall behind on revolutionizing their industry's products, business models and processes 
  • A fully hybrid model so you can choose on-campus or online lectures 

Receive more important details here.

Frankfurt School Blockchain Academy

Our academy is a knowledge hub of free video education. Here we collect all the content from the Crypto Assets Conferences and all our Online Panels. You find interesting insights from renowned experts on all relevant topics of the crypto cosmos.

  • More than 100 videos
  • Technological, legal and business aspects of blockchain and crypto assets
  • Learn from our partners and FSBC experts

Have a closer look on the Blockchain Academy
or directly on Youtube (video list).

Blockchain Masterclass
  • Comprehensive 12-hour blockchain course
  • Deep blockchain knowledge paired with case studies for practical applications

Learn more about the Blockchain Masterclass and sign up.

Digital Assets Course

Digitisation is disrupting the financial services industry in particular their business models. This course provides detailed knowledge on Distributed Ledger Technology, ranging from technical and regulatory aspects to their application.

  • Total of 12 full days split across 4 blocks
  • Classes are delivered face-to-face
  • The course is designed for executives in leadership positions at financial institutions and will help you revise or revamp your business model 

Receive more information.


  • Joint research projects with corporates
  • Studies on blockchain applications
  • Compiling technical whitepapers

  • Well established network in the DLT/blockchain ecosystem in Germany, Europe and Asia
  • Organization of conferences, meetups, seminars and online seminars
  • Workshops for top managers and decision makers
  • Lectures about DLT and blockchain for bachelor, master and MBA courses
  • Supervision of theses on various blockchain-related topics
  • Certificate program to become a blockchain expert
  • Digital Innovation and Fintech: dedicated bachelor program
  • Blockchain & Digital Assets: dedicated master program
  • Development of prototypes in Ethereum
  • Decision support with regard to (i) organizational and (ii) architectural IT decisions
  • Support with implementation of blockchain solutions
  • Advising startups on DLT/blockchain related topics
  • Establishment of B2B or investor contacts for startups
  • Support for marketing and public relations



EU Digital Innovation Hub: The Frankfurt School Blockchain Center is officially listed as a Digital Innovation Hub by the European Commission. EU Digital Innovation Hubs have been introduced to advise companies, especially SMEs, startups and mid-caps, about digitization and innovative technologies, and to provide opportunities to engage in technology-testing, financing advice, market intelligence, and networking activities.
More information

Multichain Asset Managers Association (MAMA): MAMA is is a trade body which represents asset management companies, investors, technology providers, service providers and ecosystem players interested in working towards a new vision for asset management using blockchain and other supporting decentralized technologies.
More information

International Token Standardization Association (ITSA): The ITSA is a non-profit organization aiming at the development and implementation of market standards for the identification, classification, and analysis of DLT- and blockchain-based cryptographic tokens, including the International Token Identification Number (ITIN), the International Token Classification (ITC) framework and the International Token Database (TOKENBASE).
More information

Digital Euro Association (DEA): The Digital Euro Association (DEA) is a think tank specializing in central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), stablecoins, crypto assets, and other forms of digital money. In particular, they focus on the private and the public digital euro.
More information

Blockchain Bundesverband (Bundesblock): The Blockchain Bundesverband (Blockchain Association Germany) promotes the use of blockchain technology at the business location Germany. The association represents the interests of startups and companies that want to develop business models based on blockchain technology.
More information

DLT Education Consortium (DEC): The DEC is a non-profit consortium for academic and professional organizations for international knowledge exchange, education programs, professional certificates and industry research on distributed ledger technologies.
More information

Blockchain for Europe: This association represents international blockchain industry players at the EU-level. Blockchain for Europe pro-actively contributes to the regulatory debate by supporting European decision makers in their goal to make the implementation of Blockchain technology a success. Blockchain for Europe closely collaborates with national, regional and global players – both at policy as well as industry level – to support the promotion of and education about blockchain technology.
More information

European Union Blockchain Observatory: The European Union Blockchain Observatory and Forum is a two-year initiative created by the European Commission in February 2018, aiming to support blockchain innovation and the development of the blockchain ecosystem within the EU.
More information

Austrian Blockchain Center (ABC): The ABC mission is to establish itself as the one-stop-shop Austrian Research Center for Blockchain and related technologies focusing on the industrial application in areas such as industry 4.0 and IoT as well as financial, energy, logistics, government, and administrative applications.

International Association for Trusted Blockchain Applications (INATBA): The INATBA provides users and developers of DLT a worldwide forum to exchange views and opinions with regulators and policymakers.
More information

Crypto Country Association Liechtenstein (CCA): The CCA is supporting the blockchain and cryptocurrency sectors in Liechtenstein. The goal is to organize the application and dissemination of blockchain-related matters as well as establishing quality assurance.
More information

Trust Square: The co-working space Trust Square is offering a network of experts in the field of blockchain technology, bringing together entrepreneurs, businesses, investors as well as academics and researchers in an open and diverse environment.
More information

Convergence Alliance: The Convergence Alliance is a group of leading enterprise partners, venture capitalists, technologists, start-ups and academic institutions driving the innovation around Web 3.0 through working groups, research, hackathons, and an annual dev con.
More information

Bloxberg: The Bloxberg consortium is a decentralized research infrastructure governed by various research institutes and scientists that provide services for science.
More information


Recent articles

The Coinbase Crypto Report 01 Europe 2022 H1 (CCRE) — Examining the Behavior and the Investment Climate of Crypto Asset Owners in Europe read

Decentralized Finance — A Systematic Literature Review and Research Directions read

The Digital Euro From a Geopolitical Perspective: Will Europe Lag Behind? read

Study: “The Programmable Euro: Review and Outlook” — Areas of Applications in the Industrial Sector and in the Capital Market read

Study: The Carbon Emissions of Bitcoin From an Investor Perspective read

Article: Education in Blockchain and DLT: How to Acquire the Necessary Knowledge with a Workload of 10 Working Days read

Selected publications

Comparison of Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric and Corda: With this paper, we provide a brief analysis of the most notable differences between the distributed ledger technologies (DLT) Hyperledger Fabric, R3 Corda and Ethereum. Our intention is to give decision makers new to DLT guidance for what use cases Hyperledger Fabric, Corda and Ethereum are most suitable. Read more.

Blockchain in Healthcare: This paper provides a brief overview of whether blockchain could be a promising technology for creating a healthcare ecosystem. By using blockchain-encrypted digital identity management, humans are placed in the center of medical data management. The central issues of the current system are the availability of medical data and trust of patients and stakeholders in data security and quality, which can be addressed by using blockchain technology. Read more.

Application of Blockchain Technology in the Manufacturing Industry: The following paper shows both the high potential of blockchain for the manufacturing and machine tool industry in the future, as well as the challenges that occur with that technology. Several use cases of blockchain technology will be presented and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, we want to show the conditions under which blockchain solutions might be most beneficial and if blockchain will become a key technology to transform many industries. Read more.

Solving Challenges in Developing Countries with Blockchain Technology: Blockchain technology can solve development problems as it improves existing instruments and enables the development of new ones. Blockchain-based applications particularly address institutional weaknesses and financial inclusion because they restrict deception, corruption and uncertainties. In the future, the blockchain can also be a development vehicle empowering people directly and mitigating power asymmetries. Read more.

Blockchain Technology in the Pharmaceutical Industry: With this paper, we present a blockchain-based solution to increase supply chain security for the pharmaceutical industry. Supply chain security is one aspect that has recently won attention, when the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) has been implemented in the U.S. to, amongst others, fight the counterfeit drug problem. During the second “{Life Science} meets IT” hackathon in Heidelberg a team of enthusiastic young professionals and students developed a prototype solution that is able to guard people’s life with a patient-empowering blockchain solution and won the first price with their prototype LifeCrypter. Read more.

Identifying Leading Blockchain Startups on a Worldwide Level:The blockchain startup ecosystem is unique for the interconnectedness amongst startups from different industries. Startups are in many cases the drivers of innovations. A comprehensive understanding and overview of a particular startup ecosystem can therefore be beneficial to understand which products or services are really demanded by customers. Read more.

Additional publications 2021

KOSMoS Blockchain Toolkit: How to Use Hyperledger in an Industrial DLT Project
April 2021; by Martin Schäffner, Constantin Lichti, Jonas Gross, Philipp Sandner (PDF)

The Future of Payments: Programmable Payments for the Internet-of-Things (IoT)
June 2021; by Maximilian Forster, Jonas Gross, Anja Kristina Kamping, Serkan Katilmis, Dr. Mario Reichel, Prof. Dr. Philipp Sandner, Philipp Schröder (PDF - German language)

Studie zur Tokenisierung von Immobilien: Wie die Blockchain-Technologie den Immobilienmarkt revolutioniert
October 2021; by Dr. Cyrus de la Rubia, Prof. Dr. Philipp Sandner, Jonas Groß (PDF)

Study: The Carbon Emissions of Bitcoin From an Investor Perspective
November 2021; by Prof. Dr. Philipp Sandner, Constantin Lichti, Robert Richter, Cedric Heidt, Benjamin Schaub (PDF)

Additional publications 2020

Using On-Chain and Market Metrics to Analyze the Value of Crypto Assets
December 2020; by Stober, Alexander; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Banking & Change-Management: Blockchain ist kein Projekt, sondern eine Frage der Mentalität
December 2020; by Neuendorf, Dirk. (PDF)

Solving Humanitarian Aid Inefficiencies with Blockchain Technology
October 2020; by Bricout, Aymeric; Aurez, Vincent.  (PDF)

Role of Blockchain for the European Bond Market
July 2020; by Chen, Wanli; Wang, Qianxia. (PDF)

The Digital Euro and the Role of DLT for Central Bank Digital Currencies
May 2020; by Klein, Manuel; Gross, Jonas, Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Blockchain in Healthcare
May 2020; by Bitroff, Martina; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Steuerimplikationen von Finanzinstrumenten aus dem Bereich Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
May 2020; by Himmer, Klaus; Tosovic, Vladimir. (PDF)

The Impact of Crypto Currencies on Developing Countries
January 2020; by Holtmeier, Moritz; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Additional publications 2019

How Should Companies Select a Specific Blockchain Framework?
December 2019; by Höfelmann, Daniel; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Implementing Blockchain Projects in Banks
December 2019; by Laufs, Dominik; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Blockchain – Implications and Use Cases for Additive Manufacturing
September 2019; by Diemer, Moritz. (PDF)

Blockchain and Marketing
June 2019; by Scherf, Jessica; Becker, Lutz. (PDF)

Crypto Currencies as a New Challenge to Anti-Money Laundering Regulation and the Know-Your-Customer-Principle
June 2019; by Auffenberg, Lutz. (PDF)

Blockchain Business Models for Autonomous IoT Sensor Devices
April 2019; by Higgins, Marc; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Entscheidungshilfe für den Einsatz von Blockchain-Technologie in Unternehmen: Vier Frameworks im Vergleich
April 2019; by Höfelmann, Daniel; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF) [German]

Additional publications 2018

Identifying Leading Blockchain Startups on a Worldwide Level
December 2018; by Fiedler, Malin; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Blockchain-Based ICOs: Pure Hype or the Dawn of a New Era of Startup Financing?
November 2018; by Ante, Lennart; Sandner, Philipp; Fiedler, Ingo. (PDF)

Blockchain in the Chemical Industry
September 2018; by Maxeiner, Lukas Samuel; Martini, Jan-Philipp; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Mit Blockchain auf dem Weg zur Smart Maintenance
September 2018; by Heinert, Stev; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF) [German]

R3 Corda: Implementierung eines Prototyps für Schuldscheindarlehen und Vergleich verschiedener DLT-Frameworks
Juli 2018; by Sandner, Philipp; Impekoven, Christoph; Wiemann, Jan-Philipp. (PDF) [German]

Rechtliche & marktorganisatorische Anforderungen an den P2P-Stromhandel
April 2018; by Kreuzburg, Michael. (PDF) [German]

Soft und Hard Forks: Was sind die wirtschaftlichen und steuerrechtlichen Auswirkungen
April 2018; by Himmer, Klaus; Berchtold, Magnus; Messmer, Jan; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF) [German]

Analysis of Blockchain Technology in the Mobility sector
April 2018; by Gösele, Martin; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Blockchain-basierte Abrechnung der IoT-registrierten Stationshalte: ein Proof-of-Concept auf Basis von Ethereum
April 2018; by Kuperberg, Michael; Sandner, Philipp; Felder, Matthias. (PDF) [German]

Security in Blockchain Applications
March 2018; by Roßbach, Peter. (PDF)

How We Built the Future of Shared Mobility Within Four Weeks
February 2018; by Kirn, Alexander; Gmelin, Alexander; Sandner, Philipp; Strube, Moritz. (PDF)

Blockchain: Proposition of a New and Sustainable Macroeconomic System
January 2018; by Eikmanns, Benedikt Christian. (PDF)

Additional publications 2017

Application of Blockchain Technology in the Manufacturing Industry
November 2017; by Dieterich, Vincent; Ivanovic, Marko; Meier, Thomas et al. (PDF)

Solving Challenges in Developing Countries with Blockchain Technology
October 2017; by Schmidt, Kai; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Besteuerung von digitalen Assets wie Kryptowährungen und Tokens
September 2017; by Himmer, Klaus. (PDF) [German]

Blockchain-Technologie: Vom Hype zur Wirklichkeit
July 2017; by Bamberger, Boas. (PDF) [German]

Blockchain Technology in the Pharmaceutical Industry
July 2017; by Schöner, Manuela M.; Kourouklis, Dimitri; Sandner, Philipp; Gonzalez, Erick; Förster, Jonas. (PDF)

Comparison of Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric and Corda
June 2017; by Valenta, Martin; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF)

Digitalisierung der Versicherungswirtschaft mit Blockchain und Smart Contracts
May 2017; Ghosh, Raoul; Ott, Mathias; Sandner, Philipp. (PDF) [German]

Consensus Methods in Blockchain Systems
May 2017; by Debus, Julian. (PDF)


Selected past projects
  • Development of e-mobility prototype based on the blockchain technology with INVERS
  • Proof of concept (PoC) on trading loans using Ethereum
  • Blockchain workshop with the Advisory Board of the Deutsche Bank
  • Blockchain workshop with the Board of LBBW
  • Joint workshop with Deutsche Bundesbank (6th Central Banking Workshop on “Blockchain Technology: Opportunities and Challenges”)
Conferences and seminars
  • Crypto Asset Conference in Frankfurt (CAC22)
  • German Blockchain Week (GWB 2019)
  • East West Crypto Conference (EWCC19)
  • Crypto Startup School (CSS 2018)
  • Course "Certified Blockchain Expert" (more information)
  • IoT & Finance workshop in cooperation with Bosch
  • 3. Forum: Blockchain im Finanzbereich

Press Coverage

Philipp Sandner bei Tagesschau 24

Tagesschau 24 | 03.06.2022

Bitcoin verkaufen? Prof. Dr. Philipp Sandner im Interview

Zum Video

Bild von Bitcoins

"Das verspricht sich Panama vom Bitcoin"

Zum Artikel


Bitcoin2Go | 12.09.2022
Mirco von Bitcoin2Go spricht mit Philipp Sandner über Crypto Assets und ihr Ökosystem.
Zum Video

Follow Bitcoin2Go


6 Fragen an Philipp Sandner | Im Interview mit Cointelegraph spricht der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher und Blockchain-Experte Philipp Sandner über das große Potenzial der Technologie und zeigt konkrete Anwendungen auf.
Zum Artikel


“Mit diesem 5-Punkte-Plan wird Deutschland zum Blockchain-Vorreiter”

Zum Artikel


"Die spannenden Alternativen zum Bitcoin” (ARD Boerse)

Zum Video


“Blockchain ist vergleichbar mit dem
iPhone 1”

Zum Video


“Wem nützt der Bitcoin überhaupt?”

Zum Video



Prof. Dr. Philipp Sandner

  • Blockchain and Bitcoin experience for several years
  • Strong entrepreneurship record after having founded multiple companies
  • Project manager in IT development projects
  • Studied business administration with focus on business informatics and IT at Universität Mannheim
  • PhD at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München with focus on corporate IP portfolio analytics
Frankfurt School Experts

Daniel Holk

Areas of Expertise:

  • Industrial application of blockchain
  • Decentralized finance (DeFi)
  • Crypto currencies

Constantin Lichti

Areas of Expertise:

  • Public blockchains
  • Individual adoption of blockchain technology
  • Social media research on blockchain technology 
  • Applications of blockchain and DLT systems

Constantin Lichti
Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter

Kiana Weiss

  • DLT Talents program

Jong-Chan Chung

Areas of Expertise:

  • Decentralized finance (DeFi)
  • Digital Euro
  • Data analytics and visualization

Masud Sultan

  • Decentralized finance
  • Crypto assets 
    Consulting | Quality Assurance Expert | Blockchain & DLT

Marc Anders

  • DeFi, DApps and Web3 
  • Decentralized Autonomous Organisations (DAOs)
  • Industrial application of DLT & blockchains

Cedric Heidt

Areas of Expertise:

  • Token economics
  • Entrepreneurship
  • DeFi, DApps, Web 3.0
  • Due diligence and research

Valentin Seehausen

Areas of Expertise:

  • Monetary economics (monetary systems and denationalization of money)
  • Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs)
  • Tokenization
  • Decentralized Autonomous Organisations (DAOs)

Sarah Palurovic

Areas of Expertise:

  • Trustless technologies 
  • Crypto currencies 
  • Brand building through blockchain technology and crypto currencies
  • DEA - Digital Euro Association

Julian Proft

  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi) and Due Dilligence 
  • Crypto Asset Adoption and Privacy
  • Social Philosophy 

Dominik Peer

  • DeFi Talents program
  • Decentralized finance (DeFi)
  • Crypto currencies
  • Digital business
External Experts

Christoph Kreiterling

Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, BaFin

Area of Expertise:

  • Blockchain technology research

PD Dr. Martin Fries

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Areas of Expertise:

  • Legal tech
  • Smart contracts
  • Civil law
  • Civil procedure
  • Comparative law
  • Law and technology

Martin Janda

Bitcoin Consulting UG

Areas of Expertise:

  • Blockchain and smart contract security
  • Fullstack development (Java, C#, ... ) 
  • IT security

  • Mining of crypto assets 

Dr. Jonas Groß

Areas of Expertise:

  • Impact of blockchain technology on monetary policy
  • Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs)
  • Stablecoins
  • Crypto currencies

Moritz Strube


Areas of Expertise:

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Internet of things (IoT)
  • Conversational user interfaces

Klaus Himmer

21 Consulting GmbH

Areas of Expertise:

  • Taxation & Accounting of digital Assets


  • Multishore Tax Reporting

  • Crypto Assets

  • Crypto Fund Reporting

Dr. Michael Kuperberg

DB Systel GmbH

Areas of Expertise:

  • Blockchains and DLT
  • Software Integration
  • Performance and Scalability Engineering
  • IT Security and Safety

Robert Richter

Area of Expertise:

  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi)
  • Crypto currencies in the context of portfolio management
  • Value drivers of crypto currencies